The adrenal glands are paired retroperitoneal organs situated superior to the kidneys. They consist of two functional units, the adrenal cortex (secreting glucocorticoids (cortisol), mineralocorticoids (aldosterone), and sex hormones) and the adrenal medulla (secreting catecholamines, e.g. noradrenaline, adrenaline and dopamine).
Adrenal masses can be classified into functioning and non-functioning tumors. In over 5% of routine cross-sectional imaging, an incidental adrenal mass (incidentaloma) may be found. Benign adrenal adenomas represent the commonest adrenal tumors (>60%). Adrenocortical carcinoma is rare and carries a dismal prognosis. Metastases to the adrenal gland from melanoma, lung, breast, and renal carcinoma can be found in up to 73% of cases.
- Incidentaloma >4cm or increasing in size
- Symptomatic adrenal cyst/angiolipoma
- Solitary adrenal metastasis
- Adrenocortical carcinoma